Thursday, July 9, 2020

Down Syndrome Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis - Free Essay Example

Down Syndrome occurs when a person is born with an extra copy of the twenty-first chromosome. The syndrome gets its name from John Langdon Down, an English Physician. In 1866, he published the first accurate description of a person with Down Syndrome; However, it wasnt until 1959 that Down Syndrome was identified as a Chromosomal condition. In 2000, scientists identified and catalogued the 329 genes on chromosome 21, opening the door to advances in Down Syndrome research. Down Syndrome has no known causes other than the something that causes the extra copy of the twenty-first chromosome to be present in the genetic makeup of a child with down syndrome. It is a natural condition and is not caused by anything the mother did or didnt do Unfortunately, there is also not much a woman can do to prevent having a child with Down Syndrome; however, according to the National Down Syndrome Society, the age of the mother at the time of conception is linked to having a child with Down Syndrome. As stated by the National Down Syndrome Society, eighty percent of children with down syndrome are born to mothers under 35 years old. There are three different types of Down Syndrome. Trisomy 21 is the most common of the three. It occurs when there is an error in cell division and the baby ends up with three copies of chromosome 21 instead of two. This error is the result of nondisjunction. Before or at the time of conception a pair of cells in either the sperm or egg do not separate. This extra chromosome gets copied in every cell of the body as the baby grows. The second least common form of Down Syndrome is Translocation. With Translocation there are still 46 chromosomes in all. The extra copy of the 21st chromosome is still present it is just attached to another, usually chromosome 14. The presence of the extra chromosome causes the features of Down Syndrome. The least common type of Down Syndrome is Mosaicism. Mosaicism is diagnosed when there is a mixture of two types of cells, some of them just have 46 chromosomes and some of them have 47. The cells with 47 chromosomes have an extra chromosome 21. Researchers have found that people with mosaic Down Syndrome have fewer characteristics than people with other types; however, that cannot be exact because people with every kind of Down Syndrome have different abilities. Down Syndrome is usually diagnosed at birth by certain features and characteristics; however there are tests to diagnosis the syndrome before birth. Chorionic villus sampling is a test before birth where cells are taken from the placenta and used to test the babys chromosomes. This test does not harm the baby and the chance of miscarriage is very low. Another test to be done would be Amniocentesis. During this test some of the amniotic fluid is taken from the mothers uterus. They then use the fluid taken to test the chromosomes of the baby. This test is usually done after 15 weeks of pregnancy. There is also a test that can be done after birth called a chromosomal karyotype. This test requires a blood sample in which the cells are tested for an extra 21st chromosome. A person with down syndrome may have decreased or poor muscle tone, short neck with excess skin at the back of the neck , flattened facial profile and nose, small head, ears, and mouth, upward slanting eyes, with a skin fold that comes out from the upper eyelid and covers the inner corner of the eye, Burchfield spots, wide, short hands with short fingers, a single, deep, crease across the palm of the hand, and a deep groove between the first and second toes. When a baby is diagnosed with down syndrome from the characteristics listed or some other type of testing, they will have it for the rest of their life. There is no treatment for any type of down syndrome, but special adaptations to make life easier can be made. Children with Down Syndrome have a higher chance of infection, respiratory, vision, and hearing problems. Forty percent of children affected with Down Syndrome have congenital heart defects, because of this it is important that all babies born with Down Syndrome have tests done on their hearts to find any heart defects as soon as possible. With the right care, people who have Down Syndrome live healthy lives. The life expectancy of a person with Down Syndrome is usually sixty years; however with the right care the person could live well into their seventies. Even though children and adults with Down Syndrome may have developmental delays, they also have many talents and gifts and should be given the chance to improve on and display those talents. Most children with Down Syndrome have mild to moderate impairments, but they are more like other children than people know or think. Early intervention, such as physical, speech, and developmental therapies, should be started soon after the baby is born because this raises their chance for a normal productive life in society. There are societies, organizations, and other resources to help people and families affected by down syndrome. There are several National Down Syndrome Organizations in the U.S. including the Global Down Syndrome Foundation, a National Down Syndrome Congress, and the National Down Syndrome Society. All of these organizations help to give information, support and advocacy along with improving the lives and promoting acceptance of people with Down Syndrome. References: https://www.ndss.org/about-down-syndrome/down-syndrome/ https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/down-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20355983 https://www.everydayhealth.com/down-syndrome/causes-risk-factors-babies/ https://www.webmd.com/children/understanding-down-syndrome-basics#1 https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/down-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20355977 Down Syndrome: The Facts by mark Selikowitz

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Defining Social Networking Sites On The World Wide Web

Defining Social Networking Sites Online networking can t be comprehended without first characterizing Web 2.0: a term that portrays another path in which end clients utilize the World Wide Web, a spot where substance is constantly adjusted by all administrators in a sharing and community way (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). It has much more to do with what individuals are doing with the innovation than the innovation itself, for rather than just recovering data, clients are currently making and devouring it, and henceforth including quality to the sites that allow them to do as such (Campbell et al. 2011, 87). Web 2.0 has advanced from basic data recovery to intelligence, interoperability, and cooperation (Campbell et al. 2011). Kaplan and Haenlein (2010, 61) characterize online networking as a gathering of Internet based applications that expand on the ideological and innovative establishments of Web 2.0, and permit the creation and trade of client produced content. Sinclaire and Vogus (2011, 294) refer to O Reilly s (2005) definition: online networking is an expansive term that portrays programming apparatuses that make client produced content that can be shared. However, there are some fundamental elements important for a site to meet the prerequisites as an informal organization site: the site must contain client profiles, content, a strategy that licenses clients to interface with each other and post remarks on each other s pages, and join virtual gatheringsShow MoreRelatedDefining The Overall Requirements For Social Networking Essay1407 Words   |  6 PagesINTRODUCTION This document aims at defining the overall requirements for â€Å"SOCIAL NETWORKING†. Efforts have been made to define the requirements exhaustively and accurately. 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With so many social networks out there, businesses need to focus on the ones where they knowRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Journalism1742 Words   |  7 PagesSocial media has had a huge impact on the way that journalism is practiced and the way that the general public perceive news in the present day. This dissertation aims to identify and explore the use of the different social media platforms, focusing on the impact that the rise of social media has had on journalism practices. In addition, this paper will examine the public’s responses to the news that they receive through social media platforms. Examples of social media platforms that this dissertationRead MoreFacebook s Social Of And Economic Power Essay1661 Words   |  7 PagesWhat explains Facebook’s social pervasiveness and economic power? In this context are there issues of concern? Nearly twelve years on from its conception in 2004, Facebook now has over 1 billion users (PRNewswire, 2016). 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The ancient Greeks used advertising for commercial purposes and traders hired â€Å"Criers† to promote their products † (MMC learning, n.d.). â€Å"Marketing has been changing constantly throughout its course in history as like everything else in the world† (MMC learning, n.d.). Due to new advancements in technology and trends, marketing strategies are always being altered to fit the public’s needs and desires. â€Å"Some of these new demands include new tastes, new values, competitors emerge and laws and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Blind Side Essay - 725 Words

The Blind Side - Fact vs. Fiction â€Å"Lifes a maze, you twist and you turn through it,The driest of droughts, maneuvered and I earned through it† (Clipse). During the Blind Side, Michael Oher comes up from living on the `street to becoming an NFL football players. Throughout the film he is adopted by a new family who puts him down the right path in life. Although the movie The Blind Side is similar to Michael Ohers life, there are also many things that the movie changed about Michaels journey to add excitement to the movie. During the Blind Side there are many similarities that the movie got correct about Michael Ohers life. One of the similarities of the film and Michael’s life was that Michael really did block a kid over the fence†¦show more content†¦Another difference was that Michael was not let into the High School right away, but in the movie he does get let in. Michael Lewis also states in his article, â€Å"When researching The Blind Side facts vs fiction, it was revealed that due to Michael Ohers poor and nearly non-existent academic record as of 2002, the principal at Briarcrest insisted that he participate in a home school program for a few months first to get his grades up†. This shows that Michael had to do home schooling before being let into Briarcrest High School. All in all The Blind Side makes a lot of changes to add more excitement and drama to the film. John Lee Hancock’s choices in changing aspects of Michael Oher’s life added excitement and dra ma to the movie. For example, Hancock changes that Michael does not know how to play football. This adds drama to the movie because his adoptive family now has to teach him how to play his position in football. Hancock also adds excitement when Michael gets into the High School right away, when in reality he did not. 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Big Tony takes him along I think as leverage to get his own son in to a Catholic school because they can both play sportsRead MoreEssay on The Blind Side by John Lee Hancock1413 Words   |  6 Pages The Blind Side is written and directed by John Lee Hancock, and is a true story based on the book The Blind Side: Evolution of a Game by Michael Lewis. The storyline features the life of young Michael Ohery. The movie takes viewers on a journey with Oher through his troubled childhood, to his years at Briarcrest Christian School, to his adoption by the Tuohy family, to college recruitment, and finally to a position on the Ole Miss’ football team. The movie is set in Memphis, Tennessee. 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The characterization of the central character Michael Ohers being a big illiterate black African American teenager coming from a broken home and family sets the context for the rest of the film where he is faced with many barriers restricting his comfort and pushing him towards his total disengagement from the â€Å"Whiteâ €  Society. After the Touhy’s accept MichaelRead MoreEssay on Blind Side (Healthy Family Relationships)1012 Words   |  5 PagesBlind Side (healthy family relationships) What makes a healthy family? Well in the movie The Blinde Side it depicts the importance of family, and what parents need to do in order to raise a happy, healthy family. Leah Anne Touhy a mother of the memphis family took strong effort in changing Michael Oher, a troublesome kids life for the better. Leah brought Michael into the family as one of their own. Leah then saw that Michael Oher, was born into a family of 12, was held back 2 years in elementary

Mental Health Problem Among the Australian Population

Question: Discuss about the Mental Health for Problem Among the Australian Population. Answer: Investigate prevalence/incidences of suicide /depression in various age groups and risk groups in Australia Mental disorder is a major health problem among the Australian population. The National Mental Health Report 2013, has evidenced that it affected 3% of the countrys population. The most common mental illnesses are depression, anxiety, substance use, schizophrenia, bipolar, and schizo-affective disorders (AIHW, 2014). Mental disorders ruin individuals and families, causing a disastrous effect on the community. The illnesses disrupt cognitive, emotional and social abilities, leading to economic risks and decreased productivity (McLachlan et al., 2013). Mental disorders of serious types will result in the patients isolation, stigma, and social discrimination (Morgan et al., 2011). There is a general belief that mental illnesses, like depression, are caused by disruptions in personal life.. But, in reality, the real causes are unknown, as different factors act in association with personal life, something either recent or past, such as family conflicts, friendship break-up, failure in love-life and exams, traumatic experiences, and many more, can cause depression in people (Purcell et al., 2013). The Psychological Data Survey of 2012 provides necessary information about the different types of nervous conditions. It also reveals related data like impairments, patients and families affected, mental health services received or disrupted, suicide ideation, homelessness, demographic, and socioeconomic features (ABS, 2015). As per a research on STB, suicide attempts share 48%, while suicidal ideation accounts 38%. This indicates that societal approaches will not reduce the STB risk factors (Bruffaerts et al., 2015) causing depression, anxiety, and substance use mental disorders in 20% of Australians, aged 16-15. The prevalence of mental disorders in the children and adolescent of 4-17 age group is an alarming 13.9%, which means one in seven Australian children is suffering from mental illnesses (Lawrence et al., 2015). It is estimated that 23% of Australians experience severe and disabling forms of mental depression and anxiety. 4-6% of the population have moderate, and 9-12% have mild mental disorders. In 2011 alone, 754 deaths occurred due to mental depression, of which most were the result of substance use (DoHA, 2013). The indigenous population has a higher risk, the factors being stigmas and environmental factors (Kolves et al., 201). The reason for these negative outcomes in the health sector was due to the prevalence of psychotic illnesses in Australia (MHSA, 2016). A large section of women is prone to anxiety, depression, and other mental disorders. This includes antenatal and perinatal mental disorders. Though young mothers, smokers, low income groups, overweight, etc., have a higher percentage of perinatal depression, its percentage is very less, in highly educated and upper strata females (AIHW, 2012). Hospitalization and recovery measures Mental illness is a persons disturbed behavior and inconsistent mental working, because of neurologic conditions. Psychiatric hospitalization is essential to prevent them from suicides, and its rejection can bring setbacks (Loch, 2014). A short term hospitalization will help them from harming themselves and others, though they regard such hospitalizations as a violation of their rights (Danzer Stone, 2015). Therefore, it is necessary to infuse hope and recovery feeling in mental patients. All coercive measures should be reduced, and cooperative strategy must be adopted. Nurse interactions are needed, allowing patients to make choices of their own, within their capacities. Such interventions can reduce traumatic and consequences of involuntary hospitalization and medication. Building an honest and trusting patient-nurse relationship will invite patients cooperation in receiving medical help (Danzer Stone, 2015). Using current literature, discuss factors that may have contributed to the development of the clients presentation, mental health concerns and risks. Ensure you highlight at least 2 factors. A psychiatric presentation demonstrates a mental disorder, and its diagnoses are made with validity, specificity and inter-rater reliability. The treatment is achieved through scientific methods. However, medical illnesses can display symptoms relating to a psychiatric origin. After a medical condition, the symptoms of a particular mental disorder are identifiable for another mental disorder. If it is not diagnosed attentively, such a misdiagnose will place the patient in a dangerous position (Castro, Billick, 2013). If a medical condition is misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder, it can lead to complicated situations, such as denial of proper medical care to the patient, and allegations of malpractices, and ethics dereliction. It can also bring legal action against those practitioners for negligent diagnosis (Shapiro, Smith, 2011). Sometimes, it may become difficult to identify patients who have non psychiatric symptoms of their mental illness, as primary mental illness and medical conditions may exist at the same time suppressing the symptoms. These happen when there is traumatic impact of prolonged psychological or physical mistreatment, resulting in Neuro-cognitive symptoms (Pollak Miller, 2011). The medical condition discussed herein, includes physiological consequences of all medical diseases, substance disorders, and neurological disorders, resulting in mental health difficulties. Such conditions are visible in various peoples, who have medically risky behaviors. Their family history will reveal mental complaint accounts, elder persons with dual diagnosis, and people unaccustomed to medical advice. So, errors in diagnosing medical conditions can bring negative outcomes, ethics complaints, and legal action for negligent diagnosis (Pollak Miller, 2011). Risk factors The risk factors of biological, psychological, societal, and cultural levels can lead to negative outcomes. A persons genetic predisposition to alcohol exposure prenatally is an individual level risk factor. Effective treatment minimizes these risk factors, by improving the protective factors. The Strategic Prevention Framework can help the nursing professionals in identifying these risk factors (SAMHSA, 2015). Modifiable biomedical risk factors are dependent on behavioral risk factors (AIHW, 2016), whereas, variable risk factors relate to an individuals income level, peer group, childhood adversities, and employment status. Preventive factors alleviate the impact of risk factors, through improved social competence. Some of these risks and protective factors do not change over time. Targeting a single context, relating to individuals risk or protective factors, will not bring the desired outcome (SAMHSA, 2015). Most of the mental disorders are caused by genetic, psychological, and environmental factors. Medical conditions, like heart disease, diabetes, cancer, etc., can predispose a person towards mental illness. Environmentally, adversities in living conditions during childhood, loss of parents, poverty, parental violence, harassment, etc., are risk factors for developing mental illnesses (Edward, 2015). Using current literature, discuss the ethical and legal issues related to your scenario (ensure you discuss at least one ethical issue and at least one legal issue). Your work should include reference to ethical principles. Nursing extends preventative, curative, and supportive care to clients. They also provide restorative and palliative care, and maintain professional relationships with their patients, families, and communities (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2016). Nursing ethics affirms moral judgment, by protecting human dignity and recognizing patients belief, as well as privacy (Shahriari et al., 2013). For collecting information from Lorraine, the nurse practitioner, being convinced of own competence, respected her dignity to use her self determination, adhering to the Nonmaleficence principle of nursing. And, assuring no harm, gave medication, honoring the Beneficence and Autonomy Principles. Lorraine was given treatment equality, and extended quality care with dedication, resonating the principles of Justice, Fidelity, and Totality and Integrity (Phang, 2014). Ethical issues Ethics is the process of perception, critical thinking, and analysis of information, gathered from keen observation and experience. As such, critical thinking and related procedures are vital in nursing practice (Papathanasiou et al., 2014). According to the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC, 2015), nurses should honor patients confidentiality right. When Lorraine came to the GP surgery, she was emotionally inconsistent, and was presenting symptoms of mental disorder. An assessment of the disorder could be possible only if she could reveal her personal information (Scenario B), after committing protection of confidentiality. This obligation, being ethical, restricts the nursing professional from disclosing patient information to others. But, the efforts to keep confidentiality are overshadowed with all the information going to records electronically, posing a greater challenge to it. As per the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act of 1997 (HIPAA), medical institutions must protect the electronic information of the patient (Bord et al., 2014). Since, information technologies are developing fast, anyone can collect a patients information, and publicize it on social media, jeopardizing and breaching privacy and confidentiality (John, 2016). Legal issues Confidentiality is pivotal in building trust with patients in improving their welfare. It was on that basis, The Mental Health Act, 2014, was amended, incorporating mental health principles. According to it, a provider of mental health service must respect the provisions of the Act, and make it mandatory to provide the service in the least restrictive manner with apt supportive decision making, promoting recovery. But, how far this Section can be relied upon is still not experimented. However, it underlines that when people who are responsible make decisions, such actions need to have some risks too (Victoria Aid, 2016). In addition is the privacy and confidentiality rights. The rights demand cautious balancing to cope with augmented recognition of the support-peoples role in helping decision making (Victoria Aid, 2016). Health professionals are shackled with ethical and legal responsibilities to keep patient confidentiality. A breach of it will land the professional in disciplinary action and invite a lawsuit from the patient (Legal Service Commission of South Australia, 2016). Accidental breaches will be frequent, if assessments are done in open space. Likewise, utilization of computerized documentation will increase the dissemination risk to patient information (Blightman et al., 2013). Identify 2 nursing/midwifery concerns/needs with evidence from your chosen scenario. These should be directly related to the persons mental health presentation. Ensure you discuss why you have included these two particular concerns or needs. Your risk identification should be focused on the next 1-5 days of nursing/midwifery care for your client. Lorraine was tearful, restless, and in low mood, while diagnosing at the GP. She complained of panic attacks with suicide ideation. She was shaking, sweating, and breathing rapidly all the time. The author understood she was under stress, and having competence in giving medication, the initial thought was to get directions from the physician whether to give her a sudden relief, in line with the ethical principle of Beneficence. But, leaving the internal conflicts to subside, the author went through the clients presentation, took answers to the questionnaire, assessed it, and conducted the diagnosis. After clinical testing, appraised the treatment processes, and initiated the support systems, and contacted the physician for instructions. When Lorraine revealed that she was pregnant, the author was caught in an ethical dilemma, knowing that an antidepressant would give a sudden relief; but, the moral reasoning brought confusion, such that the autonomy and non-maleficence principles began conflicting with the Principles of Beneficence and Justice. Because, as per physicians direction, if antidepressants, like SSRI or venlafaxine were given to pregnant women predisposed to depression, it would increase risks in birth defects. And, if left untreated, it would bring adverse effects to the mother and infant (Pearlstein, 2015). Another problem was whether Lorraine would accept the medication, because, she revealed earlier that she had discontinued the previous treatment, due to spaced out. Moreover, she had stigma problems, which could affect her decision making. So, the author was doubtful about her capacity to hold its legal responsibility, and the reasonableness in applying the Autonomy principle. Therefore, the author adopted a paternalistic approach, thinking that it would be justified as supporting with the principle of beneficence (Bhanj, 2013). For each nursing problem you have identified in Question 4, outline and describe TWO evidence based nursing interventions to support the person and how would you do it? Mental health care promotes mental wellbeing of patients (Scott et al., 2012), through evidence based nursing interventions. Considering the state Lorraine is in, the author will communicate in a proactive way to calm her down, and build trust. After observation, she will be given a questionnaire to answer. An informed consent will be secured, and check again to know her voluntary acceptance of treatment and medication. If it is affirmative, steps for immediate interventions will be taken with the guidance of the physician to alleviate her mental health problems. The models intended for this purpose are psychological, social, biological, and biopsychosocial interventions. Psychological intervention This intervention encompasses counseling, conflict solutions, creative therapy, cognitive and spiritual interventions, education, etc. On the first day, Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) will be given to Lorraine for tranquilizing her, and lessen the chances of harming her baby. After medication, she can sleep, under observation by the nursing assistant (Zauszniewski et al., 2012). Counselling, education, training, conflict solutions, etc., will be done the next day (Zauszniewski et al., 2012). During the 1-5 days, the progress will be checked and recorded. If it does not work properly, systemic changes will be made. Medication will be continued, and if improved, the patient will be discharged, with instructions to continue medication. Social Intervention Social Intervention involves the patients environment and the stress factors. Counseling, environmental management, vocational and creative rehabilitation, skills training, home visit, etc., are priorities in this intervention (Zauszniewski et al., 2012). The treatment will be continued throughout the five days, and the progress will be recorded. The patient will be trained in vocational and creative activities. The medication, if needed, will be continued, according to the advice of the physician. Biological Intervention The biological model concentrates on activities, nutrition, medication management, etc., and seeks the support of psychopharmacology and light therapy, along with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Repeated magnetic stimulation improves depression (Zauszniewski et al., 2012). The result will be checked daily, and if the patient has no progress at the end of 5 days, guidance will be sought from the physician for systemic changes. Medication will be regulated, corresponding to patients improvement. Biopsychosocial Intervention This collaborative intervention model is an amalgamation of the aforesaid three interventions to derive better outcomes (Zauszniewski et al., 2012). The details of progress will be recorded daily, and medication continued throughout the five days. If illness improved, the patient will be discharged with instructions. During the five days, constructive feedback from the client will be obtained for all of the above interventions, by building up trust, harmony, and support. Special attention will be given to caring for the patients needs. A change in the environment will be done to relieve stress. Irrespective of the places, a discharge plan will be prepared for the patient, each day. References Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2012). Perinatal depression: data from the 2010 Australian National Infant Feeding Survey. AIHW: Canberra. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Risk factors to health. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.aihw.gov.au/risk-factors/ Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2015). Mental Health Statistics. Category No. 4330.0. 55.004, Canberra. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2014). Australias health 2014. Australias health series no. 14. Cat. No. AUS 178. Canberra: AIHW. Australian Nursing Midwifery Federation. (2016). New RN standards for practice released. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://anmf.org.au/news/entry/new-rn-standards-for-practice-released Bhanji, S. M. (2013). Health Care Ethics. J Clinic Res Bioeth 4:142. doi:10.4172/2155-9627.1000142. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.omicsonline.org/health-care-ethics-2155-9627.1000142.php?aid=14545 Beauchamp, T. L., Childress.J. F. (2013). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 7th Edition.Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN: 978-0-19-992458-5. Blightman, K., Griffiths, S. E., Danbury, C. (2013). Patient confidentiality: when can a breach be justified? Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain. doi: 10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkt032 Bruffaerts, R., Kessler, R. C., Demyttenaere, K., Bonnewyn, A., Nock, M. K. (2015). . Examination of the population attributable risk of different risk factor domains for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 187, 66 72. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.jad-journal.com/article/S0165- 0327(15)30188-9/fulltext Castro, J. Billick, S. (2013). Psychiatric Presentations/Manifestations of Medical Illnesses. Psychiatric Quarterly, 84: 351. doi:10.1007/s11126-012-9251-1. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11126-012-9251-1 Confidentiality. Bord, J. D., Burke, W., Denise M. Dudzinski, D. M. (2014) . Confidentiality. ETHICS IN MEDICINE. University of Washington School of Medicine Danzer, G., Stone, W.A. (2015). The give and take of freedom: The role of involuntary hospitalization and treatment in recovery from mental illness. Bull Menninger Clin. 79(3):255-80. doi: 10.1521/bumc.2015.79.3.255. DoHA. (2013). National Mental Health Report 2013: tracking progress of mental health reform in Australia 19932011. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia Edward, R. D. (2015). Mental Health and Mental Illness. MedicineNet.com. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 fromhttps://www.medicinenet.com/mental_health_psychology/page3.htm John, S. (2016). Information Technology and Moral Values, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2016 Edition). Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2016/entries/it-moral-values Klves, K., Milner, M., McKay, K., De Leo, D. (2012). Suicide in rural and remote areas of Australia. Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, Brisbane. Legal Service Commission of South Australia. (2016). Confidentiality. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch29s03.php Lawrence, D., Johnson, S., Hafekost, J., De Haan, K.B., Sawyer, M., Ainley, J., Zubrick, S. R. (2015). The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents. Report on the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Department of Health, Canberra. Lawreform. (2016). Guardianship. Lawreform.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.lawreform.vic.gov.au/all-projects/guardianship Loch, A. A. (2014). Discharged from a mental health admission ward: is it safe to go home? A review on the negative outcomes of psychiatric hospitalization. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 7, 137145. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S35061 McLachlan. R., Gilfillan. G., Gordon, J. (2013). Deep and persistent disadvantage in Australia. Canberra: Productivity Commission. Mental health services in Australia (MHSA). (2016). Prevalence, impact and burden Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/background/prevalance/ Morgan, V. A., Waterreus, A., Jablensky, A., Mackinnon, A., McGrath, J. J., Carr, V., et al. (2011). People living with psychotic illness: report on the second Australian national survey. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2016). Professional standards. Registered nurse standards for practice - effective. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines- Statements/Professional-standards.aspx Nursing and Midwifery Council. (2015). The Code: Professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses and midwives. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/nmc-publications/nmc-code.pdf Papathanasiou, I. V., Kleisiaris, C. F., Fradelos, E. C., Kakou, K., Kourkouta, L. (2014). Critical Thinking: The Development of an Essential Skill for Nursing Students. Acta Informatica Medica, 22(4), 283286. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://doi.org/10.5455/aim.2014.22.283-286 Pearlstein, T. (2015). Depression during Pregnancy Best Practice Research Clinical Obstetrics Gynaecology, Volume 29, Issue 5 , 754 764. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.bestpracticeobgyn.com/article/S1521-6934(15)00072-3/abstract Phang, K. (2014). 7 Key Ethical Principles of Nursing. Nursing Community Journal. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://onlinenursing.wilkes.edu/key-ethical-principles-of-nursing/ Pollak, J. Miller, J. J. (2011). Mental Health Assessment-A Medical Perspective. Social Work Today, Vol. 11 No. 6 P. 6. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.socialworktoday.com/archive/111511p6.shtml Purcell, R., Ryan, S., Scanlan, F., Morgan, A., Callahan, P., Allen, N. B., Jorm, A. F. (2013). A guide to what works for depression in young people; 2nd Edition. Beyondblue: Melbourne, 2013. SAMHSA. (2015). Risk and Protective Factors. Samhsa.gov . Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 https://www.samhsa.gov/capt/practicing-effective-prevention/prevention- behavioral- health/risk-protective-factors Shahriari, M., Mohammadi, E., Abbaszadeh, A., Bahrami, M. (2013). Nursing ethical values and definitions: A literature review. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 18(1), 18. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3748548/ Shapiro, D. L. Smith, S. R. (2011). Malpractice in psychology: A practical resource for clinicians. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. Scott, E., Sigerson, D., Kate Woodman, K. (2012). Evidence Summary: Public health interventions to support mental health improvement. NHS Health Scotland Victoria Aid. (2016). Introduction to the Mental Health Act 2014. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.legalaid.vic.gov.au/information-for-lawyers/practice-resources/mental-health-law/introduction-to-mental-health-act-2014#old-new-terminology Whitlock, J., Muehlenkamp, J., Eckenrode, J., Purington, A., Abrams, C. B., Barreira, P., Kress, V. (2012). Nonsuicidal Self-injury as a Gateway to Suicide in Young Adults. Journal of Adolescent Health xxx (2012) 1e7. Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.selfinjury.bctr.cornell.edu/perch/resources/gateway.pdf Zauszniewski, A. J., Bekhet, A., Haberlein, S. (2012) "A Decade of Published Evidence for Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Interventions". OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. 17 No. 3. DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol17No03HirshPsy01 Retrieved 4 Sept., 2016 from https://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No3-Sept-2012/Hirsh-Institute-Article/Decade-of-Published-Evidence-for-Psychiatric-Mental-Health-Interventions.html

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Sparta Essay Research Paper The early expansion free essay sample

Sparta Essay, Research Paper The early enlargement of Sparta Sparta is a town located South of the Arcadian Highlandss in Greece. One of a figure of townships that arose on the Laconia field was Sparta, which consisted of Pitane, Mesoa, Limnae, and Conoura, all little small towns. Sparta so conquered other nearby small towns and took over the field of Laconia. Sparta, which may intend? scattered, ? was made up of places and estates spread around an country focus oning on a little hill that came to be named Acropolis. Sparta was unwalled, unlike other ancient metropoliss, until after 200 B.C. The Messenian Wars The go oning enlargement led Sparta to Northeast of Mt. Parnon to get the better of the field of Thyrea, but the Argives defeated the Spartans at the Battle of Hysiae. Sparta lost involvement in that country for more than 100 old ages. The enlargement led toward the West into Messenia a field which was settled by the Dorians. A 19 twelvemonth war began and the Spartans won. Then Messenia gave Sparta their extended land, and when Messenia combined with Laconia, the country was suitably called Lacedaemon. Everyday LIFE IN SPARTA: page 1 Male childs Trained as Combatants Sparta was run like an ground forces cantonment, life was really competitory, and the people lived like barbarians. This manner of life was highly different than the lives of the people that lived in other Grecian communities because they feared that the serfs, or their slaves, would revolt every bit good as other enemies. Spartans were tough people who raised their kids to be tough every bit good. The male childs had to walk around barefoot, and in cold conditions they were allowed to have on merely one cloak. They were starved and told to steal nutrient, but if they got caught they were beaten. This was to learn them to steal more expeditiously in the hereafter. The whip was portion of the upbringing in Sparta, and it was used on younger male childs by the older 1s during stealing competitions. Serfs were slaves that greatly outnumbered the Spartans, and the learning the kids to have was learn the male childs to run runaway serfs. This involves remaining in the countryside undetected for yearss and stealing nutrient to survive. Strength and bravery are necessary traits for the male childs to possess in conflicts against enemies from other provinces. They learn to fear authorization and make what they are told so that when they are in conflict they will non reason bids. In other Grecian metropoliss, the aged were non given every bit much power and regard as in Sparta. page 2 Spartan misss besides trained in sports. They were involved in running, jumping, wrestle, and throwing the discus and the javelin. This was so that they could raise strong healthy kids. Why Spartans despised Family Life Male childs do non ever g o place to their households at dark, and immature married twosomes were non allowed to be seen with one another in populace. Wife and hubby were non meant to go close. Work force of all ages ate in military musss and adult female were non about. That was because the differences created from being raised in separate households can do people dislike one another. Families tend to be loyal to themselves, and this can take to contending with other households. If that happened, Sparta would go vulnerable to the serfs and their other enemies. Encouraging Bravery by Contemning Weakness Spartans were banned from heavy imbibing because this would let the serfs a opportunity to revolt. All other Grecian metropoliss had relaxed and happy times because they did non hold the Spartan? s concerns, and they had spiritual festivals with mass inebriation. page 3 Humiliation was a common pattern to learn younger citizens. A adult male who failed to travel into conflict and battle courageously was made to shave merely one side of his face and turn a face fungus on the other so he could be laughed at and scorned. The Peloponnesian War Athinais wanted to make one province of all the city states and do Athens the capital of all of Greece. Their navy started to assail metropoliss to coerce them to fall in Athenian imperium. Sparta refused to fall in the Delian League, and Sparta, with the aid of other protagonists, formed the Peloponnesian League. The Peloponnesian War lasted for 27 old ages. Finally, a Spartan general, Lysander, defeated the Athenian fleet by a surprise onslaught in the seaport at Aegospotami on the Hellespont. Lysander so sailed to Piraeus, a topographic point where strong metropolis walls linked the metropolis with the seaport, and his ships stopped nutrient from acquiring to Athens. The famishment caused by this action forced Athinais to give up in 404 B.C. When the war was over, the city states were happy to be free of the rough regulation of the Athenian imperium, until they realized that they were in a far worse state of affairs so earlier. Spartan were rough swayers who were non trusters in democracy. The city states rebelled and the powerful Spartans were defeated for the really first clip by a smaller ground forces in the twelvemonth 371 B.C. page 4 The Three Classes of the Spartan State The three categories were the Spartiatai, or true Spartans, the perioikoi, made up of the dwellers of federated towns that surrounded the metropolis of Sparta, and the Helots. Merely the Spartiatai had vote privileges and a say in the authorities. The perioikoi carried on the necessary trade and industry of the state. They were non involved in the authorities, but did hold certain rights. The Helots carried on all the day-to-day work and Sparta was able to concentrate on military preparation. BY: Krystal page 5

Monday, March 16, 2020

Valley Archive Collections

Valley Archive Collections The modern world as well as the future needs historical accounts in order to be aware of how events have changed with time. There are a number of ways of learning about the past. However, archives provide very important resources that give an account of the past. It is therefore crucial for communities to be informed about the importance of valuing and keeping their archives containing precious historical documents.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Valley Archive Collections specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The archives will protect useful documents, diaries, catalogues, reference books, photographs, music, films, minutes, letters, land records, newspapers, censuses and correspondence which will be invaluable for future generations. The essay discuses the power and potential of the Valley Archive collections, a project which happens to be part of the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia. T he modern world has witnessed tremendous information, communication and technological advancements. Virtually all sectors in the society have made efforts to integrate these significant developments. Historians have not been left behind as far as keeping important records that gives an account of the past is concerned. The Valley of the Shadow is a digital archive of very crucial sources of information about the people of Augusta County, Virginia, and Franklin County, Pennsylvania, during the period of the American Civil War between 1859 and 1870. Most archives contain very limited documentation of the past which makes them look like digital books. However, the Valley of the Shadow archive is more like a large digital library that provides an account of thousands of original documents that paints a clear picture of how men and women of Augusta and Franklin counties lived during the Civil War in America. Despite its huge size, the Valley Archive Project is well structured and easy to use. It contains thousands of census and government records which include maps and images, land and church records, official statistics, and tax records, letters and diaries, newspapers and speeches, and they all provide very detailed information about the day to day activities of people in the two counties during the time of the war. The three major sections into which the archive is divided make it easier to browse and access preferred information. The Eve of the War (1859-1861), The War Years (spring 1861-spring 1865), and The Aftermath (1865-1870) are the three sections of the Valley Archive. The click of a mouse on each section of interest enables one to take a tour into this virtual library. As one goes deeper into the library, one gets access to original documentation of most sectors of the society in the two counties at the time of the Civil War. Archives, therefore, are invaluable sources of historical accounts of any given society.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With the nature of the Valley Archive Project, it is evident that historical accounts can be integrated with scientific and technological advancements that make it easier for historians to access various accounts of the past. This ease of accessing historical information helps researchers in conducting investigations through the analysis of original documentations in their digital form. We can conclude, therefore, that without archives, there is no history. Work Cited University of Virginia (2009). The Valley of the Shadow. Retrieved from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/VoS/choosepart.html

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Black Widow Spiders Essay Research Paper Adult

Black Widow Spiders Essay, Research Paper Adult black widow spiders have a glistening, black, rounded, round venters and are about 1/3 inch long ( about 1-1/2 inches when their legs are spread ) . Adult spiders have two ruddy or xanthous trigons on their underside which expressions like an hourglass marker, and their organic structure colour is dark colored normally black or sometimes dark brown. They are normally recognized because of their ruddy or reddish-orange hourglass design on the underside of their venters. This form is mutable and may look like two detached musca volitanss. In some spiders there is no form on the venters. The immature phases of both sexes of the widow spiders have red or red-orange or xanthous musca volitanss and strips on the top of their venters. Females are coloured grey or pale brown. Their colour gets darker as they get older. The hourglass form on the bottom of the venters signifiers throughout their development. Male widow spiders are smaller about 1/4 inch long, and they # 8217 ; re normally non black in overall colour, alternatively it looks like a light brown or grey. Male widows have an hourglass form excessively. When they are adult they have big knob-like forms called pedipalps, which start from the caput. But to females they still look the same. Newly hatched spiderlings are white or a yellow-white, finally turning blackish when they get older. Adolescents of both sexes look like the male. Black Widow spiders build loose and uneven mesh-type webs of unsmooth silk in dark topographic points normally out-of-doorss. And construct their webs near the land ( sometimes inside of houses ) but chiefly they build them outside. Blacken Widows can be found near the land in dark undisturbed countries. Nest sites are close holes made by little animate beings, or around building gaps and woodpiles. Besides they can be found around low bushs which are usual sites for widow spiders. Black widows are besides found indoors in dark undisturbed countries like behind furniture or under desks and in undisturbed cellar countries and crawl infinites of places are countries where black widow nests are. They don # 8217 ; T bring forth a web like the weaving spiders do or the funnel form webs that the funnel weaver spider # 8217 ; s make. The female ballads eggs in satiny cocoon pouch about 1/2-inch in breadth. The poke is a pear shaped, and is a creamy yellow, light grey, or light brown in colour. They normally lay about 300 to 400 eggs per pouch and have 4 to 9 egg pouch made during a summer. But merely 1 to 12 immature survive after the egg incubation period of approximately 14 to 30 yearss because of cannibalism. Growth requires 2 to 4 months depending on handiness of quarry during which the females shed 6 to 8 times and the males 3 to 6 times. Females mature 92 yearss after the egg pouch outburst and populate for approximately 179 yearss, while males mature 71 yearss after outburst and unrecorded for 30 yearss. Because normally the female chows the male after they mate. But sometimes if females are good fed, the males acquire off to copulate for another twenty-four hours. The females hang belly upward and really seldom leave the web. In cold conditions and drouths it can do these spiders to travel into edifices. Prey caught in the web include a many different insects ( cockroaches, flys, and beetles ) and other arthropods. The female black widow is diffident and normally merely goes out at dark. But when she leaves her web she normally goes far off from her the web. Outbreaks of black widows occur away and on. Some old ages an country may hold 1000s of widows and the following twelvemonth they may be gone. Certain sorts of home grounds such as sand dune countries may hold black widows every twelvemonth. Alternating warm and cold conditions during the winter and spring months are harmful to their endurance. The venom of the black widow spider is 15 times every bit toxic as the venom of the prairie rattlesnake. However, merely a little sum of the toxin is injected with a individual bite by the spider, while the comparatively big sum of injected rattler venom consequences in approximately 15 to 25 per centum mortality among those bitten. The badness of a individual # 8217 ; s reaction to the bite depends on where you were bitten, sum of venom injected and the deepness of bite. When a black widow spider spots you it injects a toxin that affects the nervous system. At foremost, there may be merely little swelling and two swoon ruddy musca volitanss surrounded by inflammation at the bite. Pain may be intense in one to three hours and could stay for up to 48 hours. Pain normally starts from the bitten limb up or down the arm or leg and so curtail in the venters and back. Besides musculus and thorax hurting or stringency in those countries are some common reactions to a black widows toxin. The hurting can besides distribute to the venters which causes cramping and sickness. The abdominal musculuss may go stiff and board-like with terrible spasms. There can be trouble your musculuss and colloidal suspensions of the pess and your palpebras may go swollen. Other symptoms include restlessness, anxiousness, external respiration and address trouble, shudders, purging and sudating. Swelling can be noticed in appendages and palpebras but seldom at the topographic point where you are spot. Besides there is a sense of uncomfortableness after you are bitten, and some symptoms addition in badness during the first twenty-four hours after you are bit. But symptoms normally get better after two to three yearss but some mild symptoms can go on for several hebdomads after you have recovered. The bite that is normally the most unsafe a female bite. Although it is really painful, human deaths from untreated black widow bites are uncommon. During 1926 to 1943, decease ranged from 4 to 5 per centum, but current medical interventions have reduced this to a smaller per centum. Death normally consequences from respiratory palsy. Peoples with a history of high blood force per unit area are at the greatest hazard. But immediate medical intervention can cut down the danger from widow bites and has reduced human deaths to really low rates in recent old ages. However, this spider is considered the most deadly spider in North America. If you are bitten stay composures, acquire the spider, if you can for positive designation and because of the possible badness of black widow bites you should acquire immediate medical attending is of import. If you apply an antiseptic such as I or H peroxide prevents infection. Doctors can shoot Ca gluconate to assist the effects of the toxin so it is less harmful. This helps support degrees of Ca salts that are low by the effects of a bite. You can besides acquire black widow antiserum. Since the toxin moves rapidly through the organic structure seeking to suck out the toxicant doesn # 8217 ; T work. Peoples younger than 16 and older than 60, particularly those with a bosom status might hold to remain at a infirmary. The black widow spider is diffident and normally non aggressive and bites can be rare even when there are tonss of them. The grownup female spiders normally stay in their webs unless they have to because of the temperature or if their web gets destroyed. They do non seek for nutrient and they eat the insects they acquire in their webs and are eaten when they get to them. Human bites go on when the spider is supporting their web if it is brushed against or by chance pinched. Occasionally, bites occur from hungry widow spiders when a manus or pes is flopped in forepart of the nest. Before there was indoor plumbing bites were usual in privies, normally on the males genitalias. To command the job of black widows check countries in and around your place where black widows may be found. If you find one it can be killed by oppressing or hoovering the Wednesday and spider, utilizing protective manner. Increasing the sum of visible radiation in dark countries besides can deter spiders. Besides insect powders can work for spider control but it doesn # 8217 ; t command all spiders. If you do set down insecticide put it in the dark undisturbed countries where spiders are normally found. Insecticides besides can be used to halt spider migrations into houses by spraying around the exterior of the foundation and lower narrative Windowss. Do it before cold conditions because that forces spiders into places to happen protection. The insecticide chlorpyrifos is the most widely used merchandise to command spiders around the house. Chlorpyrifos remain effectual for several hebdomads if is non exposed to visible radiation and wet. But pyrethrin is used specifically for black widow spiders. To assist forestall anyone from acquiring harmed by black widows, you should state everyone in your household to larn about black widows so they can place and avoid them. It is besides a good thought to have on baseball mitts and a long-sleeved shirt when working in spider infested countries. Remove rubbish, old boxes, hemorrhoids of timber, old rubble hemorrhoids and other unwanted things from under or around houses and outbuildings. Make non travel barefoot or manage firewood without baseball mitts. Put up screens on doors and Windowss to forestall them from acquiring in. Sealing wax or caulk clefts and crannies where spiders can acquire in the house. And wash off the exterior of the house or edifice particularly around window Wellss and other undisturbed topographic points where they build webs. There are besides several other sorts of widow spiders. I listed them below and briefly gave you some information. Although there are three distinct species, they portion similar physical and life-history features. The grownup female # 8217 ; s organic structure is normally 0.5 inch long, with a bright ruddy marker resembling an hourglass on its bottom. The male is much smaller, with a length of.25 inch and about four bright ruddy point markers on its sides. The male is diffident and seldom seen by worlds. The females are by and large non aggressive unless they see a menace or are guarding an egg pouch. All three species of black widow live in close propinquity to worlds, and each species shows a distinguishable penchant for non merely a specific home ground, but besides its peculiar nesting country. The eastern black widow, which builds its web near to the land, is found chiefly in woodsheds and woodpiles, but it has besides been found in Parkss, particularly around the legs of picnic tabular arraies. The western black widow builds its nests higher up and is normally found in gardens, particularly on shrubs, every bit good as in picnic countries, where it colonizes the bottoms of picnic tabular arraies. Although the western black widow is more normally found in these slightly natural countries, the species has besides been discovered in extremely urbanised locations. The northern black widow, while keeping some propinquity to worlds, lives by and large in undisturbed wooded countries, every bit good as around rock walls, trees, and tree stumps, and is about neer found associated with a house. The western black widow, Latrodectus evening star ranges from extreme southwesterly Canada, south into Mexico, and east to west Texas. Hesperus is the common black widow of the western United States, and it is abundant in countries of Arizona, California, and other western locations. One of the most normally places where it is found is in natural home grounds for illustration is in abandoned gnawer holes, but it can besides be found around peoples houses, even in the downtown territories of many western U.S. metropoliss. The western widows general visual aspect is really similar to the southern widow it has the hourglass marker and is normally shaped like a perfect hourglass, but it is divided into two seperate musca volitanss. Like its southern cousin, the western widow it causes a big figure of bites, largely in the southern locations. The Northern Widow, Latrodectus variolus, is the 3rd black widow found in the United States. It is found from utmost southeasterly Canada, throughout the New England provinces, and south to northern Florida. It prefers undisturbed wooded countries, rock walls, stumps, and similar home grounds. The hourglass of the northern widow is normally divided into two separate, linear markers. This species is most common in the northern portion of its scope. While its venom is really similar to that of the southern and western widows, and bites make occur, it does non look to seize with teeth worlds every bit frequently as those species. The Red Widow, Latrodectus bishopi, is a U.S. species with a restricted scope, being found merely in palmetto fronds of sandy, scrub-pine parts of cardinal and southern Florida. This spider is instead brilliantly colored, with ruddy legs and cephalothorax ( fore-part of the organic structure ) , and a black venter with orange and white markers down the dorsum and sides. The hourglass normally consists a individual ruddy elongate marker. Small is known of the bite of the ruddy widow, but its venom is likely rather toxic to mammals. The Brown Widow, Latrodectus geometricus, is a cosmotropical species, found in most tropical havens around the universe ; it is an introduced species in Florida. Color may change, but is normally brown to gray, with white and black markers on the dorsum and sides of the dorsal venters: The hourglass is normally complete. This species is frequently found on or around human habitations and other edifices. While decidedly deadly to worlds, bites be given to be less terrible than those of most other widow spiders. The Malmignatte or European Black Widow, Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus, is the common widow spider of southern Europe ( northern Mediterranean ) . It is black, with a series of ruddy markers on the dorsal venters. The malmignatte is a important medical job in assorted parts of its scope. In Herzegovina ( the former Yugoslavia ) this spider reportedly causes a big figure of bites each fall in field workers reaping grain by manus. The redback spider, Latrodectus mactans hasselti, is found throughout Australia, and in some Southeast Asiatic states. It is black, with a distinguishable ruddy ( sometimes pink or light Greies ) taging on its dorsal venters. Like most widow spiders, it harbors a extremely toxic venom, and is considered a species of clinical significance. Similar species are found in South Africa. As for if it is presently confronting any jobs in its environment, no 1 knows their exact Numberss but they are far from extinction, even if every spider was killed that was found by a individual. And that is my study on the black widow spider